1970及其前因后果 :: 一瞥惊鸿黄金屋

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Hermann Hesse

赫尔曼·黑塞

 

 

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赫尔曼·黑塞

 赫尔曼·黑塞(187772日出生于德国Calw196289日死于瑞士Montagnola)是德国最著名的小说家和诗人之一。他的许多作品都是讲个体突破社会限制的精神探寻。

黑塞的家庭背景很有趣,是宗教虔诚主义和学术成就的混合体 。他的父亲是爱沙尼亚的波罗的海德国人,母亲是施瓦本人和法裔瑞士人,外祖父是个传教士和印度学家。他的母亲年轻时曾在印度呆过几年,在那里从事传教活动。

但他的童年麻烦不断。他离开了中学只因无法适应那里的生活,甚至还跟父母对立。1892年他曾试图自杀,被关进精神病院隔离。使他成名的小说《德米安》(1919年)就是跟他的精神分析经历有关。

19岁时他在Tübingen的一家书店打工。在那里他加入了文学圈并发表了第一个作品。

1912年黑塞全家成为瑞士的永久居民。

印度哲学,后来是中国哲学对黑塞的影响都超过了西方哲学。他的大多数作品关注自我发现,具有反传统文化的强大精神力量。

1946年他获得诺贝尔文学奖。

Hermann Hesse

Hermann Hesse (born July 2, 1877, Calw, Germany - died Aug. 9, 1962, Montagnola, Switzerland) is one of Germany’s most celebrated novelist and poet. Many of his works focus on individual's spiritual search outside restrictions of the society.

Hesse's family had an interesting background which was a mix of Pietism and scholarly achievements. His father was a Baltic German, came from Estonia; His mother was the daughter of a Swabian and a French Swiss and her  father was a missionary and Indologist. His mother had spent several years of her youth in India and had done missionary work there.

Hermann Hesse had a troubled childhood. He left the seminary because of his inability to adapt to the life there and even fought with his parents. In 1892 he attempted suicide and was placed in separate mental institutions. The novel Demian (1919), influenced by his experience with psychoanalysis, made him famous.

 At the age of 19 I worked in a book shop in Tübingen. There he joined literary circle and published his first work.

In 1912 Hesse and his family took a permanent residence in Switzerland.

The Western philosophy did not influence Hesse as much as Indian and, later, Chinese philosophy. Most of his works pay special attention to the individual's self-realization and bear a vital spiritual force aligning with counter-culture values.

He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1946.

 
 
 

附  录 Appendixes

本站简评 Brief comment

Unofficial website of Hermann Hesse 1

黑塞非官方网站1

Unofficial website of Hermann Hesse 2

黑塞非官方网站2

黑塞中文网站

黑塞:他击中了时代的神经

黑塞曾预见“工厂式生产文章”的时代

黑塞,在放逐与求索之间

Hermann Hesse (1877-1962)

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不是每个文学家都能像赫尔曼·黑塞那样思考,不是每个思想家都能像赫尔曼·黑塞那样写作。人们将他形容为一名浪漫派的骑士,这个比喻并不确切。黑塞没有如此浪漫飘忽的气质,更没有风驰电掣的速度,他只是在认真地散步,跟哲学家小道上的那一干人相似。卡尔夫(Calw)和图宾根(Tübingen)都不是盛产骑士的地方,但它们却都适合养育行者。

黑塞相比于其他西方人具有天生的优势,长辈早为他准备好了通往东方的便道,幸运的是,黑塞没有浪费它。一个不了解东方哲学的黑塞会是什么样子?他还能唯美地唯心下去吗?

不错,一个唯美地唯心的黑塞正是世界所需要的。有了黑塞,我们就可以问唯美主义者,你真懂得心灵的智慧吗?也可以问唯心主义者,你真了解思维的美丽吗?剔除一切干扰,聆听内心的声音,每个人的心灵都是美好的。“恶”总是来自于行动与内心之间的阻断,社会的噪音就像马路上的噪音一样大,以致我们听不到心灵的声音了。

黑塞的作品中读者时常可以发现他的冥思(Meditation),而且是结合了西方式辨证和东方式神秘的独特思考。可是正如黑塞作品所反映的那样,任何思考最终都是指向自我。在这条通向自我的道路上,形形色色的教义都只能充当指示一段路的路标,它们都会在离终点还有一段距离的地方终止,剩下的路需要人们自己去发现。而如果你已经发现了它,就不必再借助任何教义。

我们出发,是为了回归,黑塞提醒着我们。

Feb. 25, 2010

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